Discuss what associations exist between nutritional status and health outcomes?

Study data –> additional information (RUBRIC)to follow is in files

Koretz, R. L., Avenell, A., & Lipman, T. O. (2012). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012, Articles 5, CD008344
The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral, enteral, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients who have underlying liver disease. Randomized clinical trials comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who did or did not receive parenteral, enteral, or oral nutritional supplements were identified through large databases. Of the 37 trials identified, only one was at low risk of bias. Most of the findings did not find any significant differences. There were several trials suggesting improved serum nutritional biomarkers, lower rates of infection, and fewer complications with parenteral or enteral nutrition. However, the one trial of low risk for bias found an increased risk of death in patients receiving supplements.
Conclusions

The authors concluded that the data on providing parenteral, enteral, or oral nutritional supplements to patients with liver disease do not provide compelling evidence to justify routine use. Data from well-designed randomized controlled trials with an untreated control group are needed in order to determine recommendations.
Read the study above and answer one of the following questions, according to the topic chosen, in a summary.
Topic 1 – What methods can be used to assess nutritional status?
Topic 2- What methods can be used to identify those at risk for malnutrition?
Topic 3- What specific health conditions increase the risk of malnutrition?
Topic 4- What associations exist between nutritional status and health outcomes?
Topic 5- What type of interventions improve adherence to recommendations on nutritional intake?